The Speed Of Light
RecappingSpring-And-Loop Theory came about because the present theories of physics are deficient.
The original paper, announced on January 1, 2013, outlined the basic theory.
As with any good theory, the value of Spring-And-Loop Theory is that it is a simpler, yet more useful, model.
Atlas said that all he needed was a big enough lever and a suitable place to stand and he could move the world. Physicists say that all they need is a sufficiently unified and consistent theory, and they could describe how the universe works.
Spring-And-Loop Theory is that theory. And as time goes on it continues to illuminate.
What is the speed of light?In the original paper the point was made that no one knows what the speed of light is. What we don't know about the speed of light could fill a book. For example
- Why is there a limit in the first place?
- Why is the limit 186,000 miles per second and not some other figure?
- Why does it vary with the medium it is travelling in?
- Why is mass related to energy by the speed of light, squared?
- Why is light bent by gravity?
- And how do we know that, if we were riding a beam of light, all photons coming toward us would appear to be travelling at the speed of light?
- but most basically of all, what exactly is "the speed of light"?
Spring-And-Loop Theory in a NutshellSpring-And-Loop Theory says that the entire universe is filled with ultra high energy springs and that mass is a special form of that energy, one that is stabilized into an enclosed loop. The vibrations of atoms are what happens when these ultra high energy springs become bound to lower energy loops -- a rambunctuous child holding on to a calm parental hand.
The four forces are all unified in this model. The strong force is that basic spring-loop bond. The weak force is that strong bond letting go, causing the spring to thrash around violently (until it recombines in some way). The electromagnetic force is the basic spring-spring interaction -- propagating every possible type of "particle" and exchange. Gravity, the subtle yet pervasive child of the other three forces, is the effect, on the Universal Matrix of springs, when a loop is introduced -- clamping part of a fish net creates a small effect felt everywhere in that net.
And soThe speed of light is the propagation time through the Universal Matrix of springs. When you hit a spring, it bumps against its neighbor, and that neighbor bumps against their neighbor, and so on. There is a time taken for each interaction, and a distance (the size of each spring). Distance divided by time equals velocity.
The speed of sound is how fast bumps can be transmitted in a spring-loop system, a system of matter particles within the Universal Matrix. No matter particles, no sound transference.
In a completely analogous way, the speed of light is how fast bumps can be transmitted in a spring-spring system (i.e. the Universal Matrix). No spring-spring interaction, no light transference.
ConsequencesGood models allow predictions.
Spring-And-Loop Theory allows predictions about the speed of light.
There is a precedent for this. When light travels through different materials, the speed decreases (to one extent or another) relative to the speed in a "vacuum".
So what causes light to slow down in a material?
A car in traffic will move slower than one on a deserted Interstate highway. Easy enough to imagine. But what else could cause a car to go slower? Cheap gasoline could do it, as could an aging engine.
Spring-And-Loop Theory says the universe is one big mass of energy, quantized into something most easily visualized as springs. But the universe is expanding, the hot air balloon is getting bigger. Well what happens to the temperature of the air in the balloon as the balloon diameter expands? It must decrease, all other things being equal.
So, "space" is getting cooler.
Note that, while true, we are not referring to the 2.7 degree Cosmic Microwave Background temperature. The CMB is the viscosity of water, measured by a fish.
Spring-And-Loop Theory says (1) the fundamental energy within a spring is decreasing with time, (2) the speed of light is the spring to spring bump speed, and so (3) the speed of light must also be decreasing with time.
TestabilityOne of the absurdly limiting notions in physics these days is that if something is not testable, it is not science. A better approach would be to continuously ask of any theory "Yes, but where does it lead us?" and only when it points us toward the wall of infinite probabilities or across the undefined bridge of dividing by zero should we then say "No thanks, I'll try another route".
Instead of mathematical absurdities, Spring-And-Loop Theory has reached Testability, the scientific gated community.
Calculating how much the speed of light is slowing down is routine, once we make a few assumptions and define our basis of calculation.
Basis: A molecule of air inside a hot air balloon, of diameter d, travelling from one side of the balloon to the other, as the balloon is heated. Let v be the velocity of this air molecule, in "balloons per second". Let D be the change in diameter in one second.
- the speed of propagation is related to the distance travelled
As the balloon expands, the air within it must cool, slowing the velocity of a given molecule of air and yet increasing the distance it has to travel to go from one side to the other.
Every second the air molecule's speed slows down by:
- the change in spring energy is so small, relative to the expansion of "space", that it can be assumed to be zero
d ------ * v d + DEquation 1a
Now let d be a distance of one megaparsec and v be the speed of light. As to D, Wikipedia says "Space is expanding at a rate of 46.2 plus or minus 1.3 miles per second per megaparsec."
A megaparsec is 3.26 million light-years.
1 light-year is about 6 trillion miles.
So 1 megaparsec is about:
[3.26 x 106]*[6 x 1012 miles] = 19.56 * 1018 miles
The expansion rate is: 46.2 miles per second
The Speed of light is: 186,282 miles per second
So, light bounces must travel an extra 46.2 miles over a distance of 19.56 * 1018 miles every second.
Each second the Speed of Light slows down by:
19.56 * 1018 ----------------------- * 186,282 (19.56 * 1018 + 46.2)Equation 1b
When the fractional portion becomes 1/2, the speed of light will be 1/2. To make the fractional portion equal to 1/2, the expansion amount must equal one mega parsec. In other words, when space has expanded from one mega parsec to two mega parsecs, the speed of light will be halved.
- let t be the time it takes for space to expand to double its size
46.2 * t = 19.56 * 1018Equation 2
So, every (19.56 * 1018)/46.2 seconds, the speed of light slows by 50%
In one day there are: 3600*24 seconds
In one year there are: 3600*24*365 = 31,536,000 seconds
Simplifying the number of seconds, we get:
t = 0.423 * 1018 seconds
Converting that to years we get:
0.423 * 1018 s / (3.1536 * 107 s/yr) = 0.134 * 1011 years
So, in 134 billion years, the speed of light will slow by 50%.
In 2.68 billion years, it will slow by 1%.
In 2.68 million years, it will slow by 0.001%.
In 2,680 years, it will slow by 0.000001%.
- - - - -
The speed of light is defined as 299,792,458 meters per second. 1% of 299,792,458 m/s is 2,997,924.58 m/s
0.000001 of 1% of 299,792,458 m/s is 2.99792458 m/s
In round figures, every thousand years, the speed of light decreases by [2.99792458 * 39.34 in/m * 1/12 ft/in * 1000/2680 yr/yr] 3.67 feet per second (2.5 miles per hour).
InterpretationEinstein's theories of Special and General Relativity came out about one hundred years ago. In that time, the speed of light has decreased by 0.25 miles per hour.
But Wikipedia says "Since 1983, the meter has been defined in the International System of Units (SI) as the distance light travels in vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second. This definition fixes the speed of light in vacuum at exactly 299,792,458 m/s."
Spring-And-Loop Theory says we "fix" the speed of light at our peril...
Since the speed of light is actually decreasing (as the universe expands), then, by definition, the "unchanging" meter is decreasing as well. But space is expanding. These two effects add together but since every distance everywhere changes to the same degree, the second effect can not be detected by us fish, measuring the viscosity of water.
An AsideRelativity says that "time slows in the presence of mass".
Just prior to the "Big Bang", when mass was very dense, time would have been "crawling", allowing all that "getting into place" stuff to happen without the need for an "Inflation" miracle.
Consequences of ConsequencesThe current definition of time (i.e. of a second) involves the number of oscillations of a cesium atom. The problem is that the number of oscillations per second changes as the spring pressure on an atom changes. So time is currently defined by something that is changing...
Take your pickAny, many or all of these consequences could explain the "kilogram getting smaller" problem.
If it does, then mass, like distance and the speed of light, is decreasing with time...
In any case, Spring-And-Loop Theory is certain that the speed of light is not constant, but is decreasing with time.
And therefore...The speed of light must have been faster in the past.
Negating the need for a miraculous "inflationary" period.
At this pointSpring-And-Loop Theory says there was a "bang", followed by a period of expansion that has continued right up to the present day.
There is no need for an inflationary hack because the speed of light -- the "limit" on how fast things could get into position -- was faster in the past. The more compactified the universe was, the faster the speed of light was.
Shortly after the bang, things got into position at up to light speed, but it was the speed of light at that time. And was essentially "instant" by today's standard.
Spring-And-Loop Theory has reassembled the Big Bang, discarding a number of unneeded parts.
FurthermoreThere is no need to wonder how we could be living in a time where the expansion is accelerating -- it always has been accelerating.
There is no horizon problem. Spring-And-Loop Theory is not dependent on an initial explosion to cause things to move away from each other in an exponential fashion. Nor does Spring-And-Loop Theory need an "inflationary" fudge factor to allow everything to get in place "faster than light".
There is also no mystery about what dark energy is -- it is just that portion of the ultra high spring energy that we can not measure directly, due to it being off our "fish measuring the properties of water" scale.
The Truth Is Duller Than FictionWe get what we deserve. If we insist on a supreme deity, we build our mental foundations on quicksand. If we hunger for mystery, physicists will give us worm holes.
Spring-And-Loop Theory has always assumed that things are knowable, and visualizable. Once a suitable model has been conceived. And as long as we resist the temptation to indulge in childish fantasies.
Now we will see if measurements confirm it.
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Spring-And-Loop Theory by Floyd Maxwell is licensed
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