The Ultimate UnknownNeutrinos are more unknown than known.
The most plentiful particle in the Universe -- unless you count photons as particles [more] -- yet we don't even know how much neutrinos weigh.
Neutrinos are too small, and too good at avoidance, to measure directly. As a result science has taken the LHC approach of creating monster machines to detect handfuls of events.
The Standard Model's NemesisNeutrinos are known to (a) change flavors, yet they are also known to (b) travel at the speed of light.
So neutrinos break the Standard Model.
Luckily, when something breaks the Standard Model, it is just a matter of quickly erasing one rule and replacing it with two new ones (and a couple of complicated exceptions). Or leave things like gravity unexplained and carry on happily.
In any case, the Standard Model wakes up each morning intact -- pristine and perfect! "Never been proven wrong" we are told, over and over again. [Don't click this]
Of Kings And ClothesThey must initiate the physics brainwashing after second year physics or I would have picked up a dose of "the faith" myself.
In "JFK", Walter Mathau dismisses the lone gunman theory with "That dog don't hunt."
The Standard Model would love to kill off the neutrino question so let's seek answers elsewhere.
What we know for sureNumerous experiments have confirmed that neutrinos travel at the speed of light, within the limits of experimental accuracy.
Neutrinos are also of minimal mass, with the current upper bound on their size being 0.23 eV.
The electron -- the next lightest particle -- is at least two million times heavier than the neutrino.
Our original assumptionSpring-And-Loop Theory has assumed from day one that neutrinos were springs.
Given that neutrinos were known for their non-interaction, Spring-And-Loop Theory imagined them as ball-shaped, due to self-binding.
This accounted for their being able to penetrate almost everything, and yet react with almost nothing.
Our new assumption
Today Spring-And-Loop Theory goes one stage further which, true to form, means one stage simpler.
Spring-And-Loop Theory thinks neutrinos are simply springs.
Surplus springs, mind you. But not self-bonded.
Ground Rules reviewSpring-And-Loop Theory is a remodelling of physics.
Spring-And-Loop Theory says the Universe is entirely full of ultra intense, ultra tiny bundles of energy. Dubbed the Universal Matrix, this energy system is most easily visualized as spring-like.
Matter is stabilized loops of a lower level energy.
Ground Rules Part 2Spring-And-Loop Theory sees loops contracting spring space as the cause of gravity. Imagine putting a clamp on a fishnet -- the small effect would be felt everywhere in the net.
Springs hitting against springs is the electromagnetic force. Just as sound is transmitted through solid material, so is light (and other radiation) propagated through the Universal Matrix of springs.
The strong force is springs clamping onto loops.
Springs letting go of loops, and as a result thrashing around in the most intense way imaginable, is the weak force.
Where do neutrinos fit in?Conventional physics says "Neutrinos interact primarily through the weak force*."
Spring-And-Loop Theory says that when atoms decompose, springs thrash around before recombining, but in some atomic transformations, one or more springs get left out in the cold.
Neutrinos are one possible atomic splitting (and joining) product, and by-product.
It's raining neutrinosThe Sun is fusion powered, and bigger than everything else in the Solar System put together.
It is naturally our biggest source of neutrinos.
But other stars can send neutrinos our way too.
Lots of testing, few resultsWe have a few facts:
A billion neutrinos for every atom in the universe.
A trillion passing through your thumbnail every second.
Just one neutrino per lifetime interacts with your body.
But it's all still pretty mysterious, n'est pas?
Orphans in a spring-verseIn response to a Wikipedia List of Unsolved Problems in Physics question, Spring-And-Loop Theory proposed that the Sun is a system supersaturated with springs.
On Earth, all loops are spring-saturated. Like happily bonded atoms, Earthly spring-loop systems are content and stable.
Space has no loops, approximately. It is a springs-only system that is saturated, but not supersaturated.
You better runWhen a system has an excess of springs, something has to happen to equilibrate things.
In World War 2, submarines had a big challenge. How to hit a ship on the high seas.
Simply aiming and firing a torpedo was largely ineffective, as ships could simply turn toward or away from the torpedo, and sometimes torpedoes found their way back to the submarine.
This led to conditional arming and disarming of the torpedo. Further refinements involved having the torpedo seek the ideal depth to do the most damage to a ship.
Subatomic TorpedoesThe Sun may be the ultimate submarine and is quite untroubled by thoughts of friendly fire.
It dispenses with leftover neutrinos by firing them out into space.
A continuous nuclear explosion fueled by a million Earths worth of feedstock ensures the Sun is and will remain the mightiest submarine of them all. For all time, or another five billion years, whichever comes first.
CalculationsSo how many neutrinos does the Sun launch per second?
According to one source, the Sun emits about 2 * 1038 neutrinos per second.
Wikipedia adds that "About 65 billion solar neutrinos per second pass through every square centimeter perpendicular to the direction of the Sun in the region of the Earth."
Let's assume the 100 billion stars per galaxy in each of the 100 billion galaxies are all making as many neutrinos per second as our Sun.
2 * 1038 neutrinos/(sec)*(star) * 1011 stars/galaxy * 1011 galaxies/universe
= 1060 neutrinos/sec are being liberated in the Universe
The Universe is estimated at 100 billion light years in diameter.
Volume = 4/3 * π * r3
= 4/3 * 3 * [50 * 109 ly]3 = 4 * 125000 * 1027 ly3 = 5 * 1032 ly3
The expansion rate is: 46.2 miles per second (per megaparsec)
In one second, the Universe expands
[46.2 miles / (3.26 * 106 ly)] * 1011 ly
= the Universe grows 1,400,000 miles wider every second
For an expansion of y, volume increases by: (x+y)3 - x3
Expanding (x+y)3 - x3
= [(x2 + 2xy + y2)(x + y)] - x3 = [x3 + 2x2y + xy2 + x2y + 2xy2 + y3] - x3 = 3x2y + 3xy2 + y3
Dropping the very much smaller second and third terms:
Basis: one second of expansion:
= 3 * (100 B ly * 6T mi/ly)2 * 46.2 mi3 = 3 * (1011 * 6 * 1012)2 * 46.2 mi3 = 3 * (6 * 1023) * (6 * 1023) * 46.2 mi3 = 108 * 1046 * 46.2 mi3 = 5 * 1049 mi3
The Universe is expanding by 5 * 1049 cubic miles each second.
As used in COASALT 8: Quantum World:
The Planck volume is 4.22419 * 10-105 m31060 neutrinos created every second in the Universe, with each having a volume of 10-114 mile3, adds up to 10-54 of a cubic mile of newly liberated neutrinos every second.
4 * 109 m3 in a mile3
The Planck volume is 10-114 mile3
This is about a factor of 10103 times too few neutrinos to account for the expansion rate of the Universe by neutrino creation alone.
Additional considerationsOne thing this calculation did not do was take into account how long neutrinos survive before they "weak force interact".
The rule-of-thumb is that a beam of neutrinos could pass through a light year of lead with only half the beam being absorbed.
We'll take that as a neutrino half-life of one year.
DiscussionThe half-life estimate is based on neutrinos travelling through a solid material the whole time. Whether they last more or less time when travelling through "space" alone is up for debate.
Given that the "through a light year of lead" estimate is no doubt based on how many the Sun creates, versus how many "hit our test objects" 93,000,000 miles away, it is probably a fairly close approximation.
The 1022 (from the cosmos) vs 1010 (from the Sun) disparity shown here suggests our assumption may be reasonable.
31,557,600 seconds in a year increases our neutrino density by a factor of 107 but we are still a factor of 1096 short.
By the wayPhysicists assume "neutrinos from space" equals "the cosmic microwave background temperature".
The 330,000,000 low energy neutrinos per cubic meter from non-Sun sources are all assumed by physicists to be the residual effect from the Big Bang.
Attribution issues aside, and given that the Standard Model expects space to have a temperature 10120 times higher than what is measured, we could assume 10120 times as many neutrinos/m3...
Not so fastEven though a 10120 increase in neutrinos gets us in the ballpark to explain the expansion of the Universe with neutrinos alone, Spring-And-Loop Theory doesn't think much of this "calculation".
The 330 million "space" neutrinos are just those being created by stars outside our Solar System, period.
And the CMB temperature measurement is way off because we can't measure the temperature of spring-only systems.
But what is space expansion, anyway?All is not lost because we don't need neutrinos to create space. All we need to inflate a balloon is pressure.
Each neutrino, being a spring, happens to be the most powerful source of pressure there is. As discussed in COASALT 1: the Speed of Light, the springs that fill every Planck volume of the entire Universe are already enough to expand space.
Newly orphaned neutrinos just provide a little kick.
Ok, maybe a lotNeutrinos could be responsible for the accelerated expansion of the Universe.
Every second 1060 neutrinos get created, and have no final destination for about a year.
Left unattended, they increase the pressure of "the system". Giving us a Universe that has nowhere to go but out, in all directions.
The latest dilemmaIn a July, 2014 "Physics World" paper, physicists tried to explain the Supernova SN1987a anomalous neutrino-vs-photon arrival time using today's accepted theories: general relativity and quantum mechanics.
General relativity says neutrinos and photons should arrive at the same time. The fact that they don't breaks general relativity.
Quantum mechanics can at least come up with a theory. See if this sounds reasonable to you:"a photon propagating through space can occasionally annihilate with itself, creating a virtual electron–positron pair. Soon after, the electron and positron recombine to recreate the photon. If they are in a gravitational potential then, for the short time they exist as massive particles, they feel the effect of gravity."
Toughening Spring-And-Loop TheorySpring-And-Loop Theory can also theorize why neutrinos arrive first. But first Spring-And-Loop Theory will reiterate that photons are never particles, so they can't split into "virtual electron–positron pairs".
In this paper, Spring-And-Loop Theory has stated that neutrinos are pure "unadulterated" springs. The springs of the Universal Matrix, however, are not "pure" in that they are altered (i.e. reduced in energy) by matter loops.
So neutrinos will pass through space without being slowed, while photons (i.e. spring bumps) will be slowed by mass.
Poor models survive by the heavy use of duct tape.
Good models get stronger under the same conditions.
Being able to account for and model neutrinos travelling through space faster than photons makes Spring-And-Loop Theory a more accurate model.
No shims, tape or new parts were needed.
In addition, Spring-And-Loop Theory can now predict that the most accurate time measurers for inter-galactic events like supernovas will be neutrinos.
Rutherford described the neutron as a proton-electron doublet.
It turns out that a proton and an electron are held together by a neutrino -- i.e. by a spring.
While in the nucleus, "all roads lead to Rome" and the proton-electron double is mainly held together by gravity. By space bending.
When a neutron is by itself, it is like a tree that, having grown up in a forest, is now forced to stand alone. The winds in this case are the ultra-forceful springs that outnumber particles by a factor of 1073.
A few moments of spring buffeting and the neutrino (i.e. spring) bond breaks, decaying the neutron.
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