Change your thinking, change your life!

The Ongoing Revelations

Of A Better Model:

Black Holes Revisited

YouTube [9min] | MP3 [9min]

by Floyd Maxwell, BASc

Black Holes Revisited

Careful observations over tens of years have confirmed that the outer stars orbit the Milky Way's supermassive black hole (SMBH) at a constant (B) rather than ever-decreasing (A) speed.

COASALT 5: Gravity discussed this non-trivial problem, as it ultimately stems from flaws in our current theory of gravity.

Here we accept things as they really are, propose reasons to explain things, and use Spring-And-Loop Theory's more consistent model to visualize other consequences.


The graph that launched the "dark matter" folly



If it IS broken, then what?

There was a time when we called our broken theories broken.

Today when we find an anomaly, we blurt out "We've found out what dark matter is!" The beauty of this flippancy is we solve two problems at once -- our anomaly becomes our ally, and the dark matter thorn is vanquished.

Political correctness,
always the wrong approach,
has become outright truth avoidance.


Giving truth a chance

The truth is that our theories are increasingly broken.

Each anomaly is another axe blow.

And all because of flawed assumptions.

Making assumptions simply means believing things are a certain way with little or no evidence that shows you are correct, and you can see at once how this can lead to terrible trouble.
 - Lemony Snicket


The tangled web we've woven

The first bad assumption was choosing Boltzmann's atom over the energetics of Rankine, Ostwald and Mach. Atomism is not so much wrong as it is misleading.

James Clerk Maxwell was much closer to the truth when he observed that "the only thing which can be directly perceived by the senses is Force." *

Human nature being what it is, we all prefer something tangible, to something intangible. An atom is easier to visualize and, literally, to grasp. But the first step in the wrong direction had been taken.

Your assumptions are your windows on the world. Scrub them off every once in a while, or the light won't come in.
 - Alan Alda


Burning the ether

The second bad assumption was probably Faraday's doing. A great experimentalist, Faraday received little formal education. No wonder he opted for magnetic fields over an ether medium.

In his otherwise able chronicling of the lives of Faraday & Maxwell*, Basil Mahon leaps into damage control mode whenever the ether is mentioned.

Tantamount to a rewriting of history, we have to question why he did this.

Don't believe everything you think.
 - Allan Lokos


Progress through paralysis

The intuitions of Newton, Maxwell, Poincare and Einstein have ebbed over the years. Today we have a neap tide of dark matter and dark energy, and sacrilegiously faster-than-light neutrinos.

Yet the flood of scientific publications and press releases is a million times what it was a hundred years ago.

"Aspirations of progress via xerographic means"?

I better copyright that...


Learning from witches

It is not too late, of course.

Though the scientific polgroms have never been more intense, we can still elect to think for ourselves.

Unless you have Einstein-envy.

The Einstein curse

What could be more brilliant, more powerful, or more elegant than e=mc2 ?

It extended the work of Newton. Was dense with equations, yet highly reducible. Decades in the making, decades in the proving.

QED. Einstein won. And we all lost.



I want my ether back

The third bad assumption was that the ether wasn't.

Oh, it always was. Until Einstein's Special Relativity.

Then it was again, thanks to General Relativity!

Yet we couldn't find it, so we called off the search.

Abscence of evidence
is not
evidence of abscence.


Turn back the hands of time ***

In Spring-And-Loop Theory, the ether is not just back. Its got the lead part.

Older people sit down and ask "What is it?"
but the boy asks "What can I do with it?"
 - Steve Jobs

With the star rotational velocity problem, we need to first consider what the Universe could do with 1060 neutrinos.

Spring-And-Loop Theory says that neutrinos are springs. Newly released, and surplus, these true "chunks of space", are temporarily homeless vagabonds. With a lot of time, and energy, on their hands.

Let's see what trouble they get into

Perhaps the greatest curse of the Standard Model, is the haphazard naming of things. Forgiveable ignorance, surely, but increasingly confusing as the years roll by.

'Neutrino' (Italian for 'little neutral one') is pretty far from what this massively energetic, most ubiquitous, space-creating "particle" actually is.

So, neutrinos create space. What of it?

There goes the neighborhood

Neutrinos come from fission and fusion; the tearing apart and rebuilding of atoms.

Given that naturally occurring fission is essentially non-existent in the universe, we'll focus on fusion-sourced neutrinos.

And look at that, we find tons of them. In stars.

Expanding on this

What is the local effect of creating space around a star?

More space around a star dilutes the gravitational force. Lubricating the star's evasive tactics.

The gravitational versus rotational balance now upset, the star takes a straighter, less gravitationally-bound path. And naturally travels faster than conventional physics would expect.


The Four Million Sun Gorilla

The original paper talked about a black hole being a loop-saturated system.

With all springs bound to loops, light propagation -- i.e. springs bumping against springs -- stops.

There are other consequences of a black hole's loop-saturation. One is that the gravitational effect of supermassive black holes is less than classic physics would predict.

Gravity maxxed

Gravity is "matter bending space", or contracting spring space in the Spring-And-Loop Theory vernacular.

Space can only be contracted so far. At the point of maximum contraction, additional mass has no effect.

Simulation of Spring-And-Loop Theory will reveal when a black hole reaches its "maximum gravity" point.


Missing black holes

Recently it was noticed that black holes above a certain size range -- more than
100 solar masses -- are less common than expected.

This prompted Spring-And-Loop Theory to consider what it would be like to be a newly formed black hole in a random part of a galaxy not near the center.

A new and rather startling idea emerged...

Anti stars

As discussed in COASALT 9: Neutrino, stars are spring-supersaturated systems. Space creators.

For ease of visualization, imagine stars emitting not neutrinos but helium gas. Then they would be atmosphere creators.

In contrast, a black hole is a loop-saturated system, and literally iron-created.

Journey to the Center of the Galaxy

If one imagined a star beginning life "at ground level", then as it burned it would create a great deal of lighter material.

Until the furnace ran out of fuel.

Conversion to iron takes rather than liberates energy, causing the star to collapse. And in doing so, it becomes extremely dense.

In our ground level analogy, it would be impossible for the star to remain on the surface.

Supermassive graveyard

Non-supermassive black holes would be drawn to the center of the galaxy. At the fastest possible rate.

With a galaxy 50,000 lightyears in radius, there would be plenty of time to accelerate such black holes close to the speed of light.

Crossing the event horizon, there would be little fanfare as everything is already compressed to the maximum.

Having blazed for millions or even billions of years, the former star would depart without so much as rushed "goodbye!"

By the way...

SMBH-destined black holes could pass very near Earth.

All it would take is for the black hole to have formed some distance further from the supermassive black hole than Earth.

I wonder what sort of disruption that would bring.

Sleep tight.




* - "Faraday, Maxwell And The Electromagnetic Field", 2014, page 136

** - Ibid.

*** - Sorry, RK (& EF), I gotta go with TD on this one




The Speed Of Light   Black Holes   Einstein's Equation   The Ether   Gravity
222 Answers   The Atom   Quantum World   Neutrino   Black Holes Revisited
The Comedy Of Science   et=mc3   Comparing Physics Theories
Diffuse Interstellar Bands   Einstein's Ether Talk   No Strong Force
The Electron   Relativity   Unification   Assumptions


Spring-And-Loop Theory by Floyd Maxwell is licensed
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