The Stuff Of LegendBlack holes are one of the most fascinating concepts in modern physics.
Wikipedia's black holes page begins with a definition of what a Black Hole is:
A black hole is a region of spacetime from which gravity prevents anything, including light, from escaping.
The next sentence tells us:
The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass will deform spacetime to form a black hole.
So once again we have to tip our hat to Albert Einstein, who seemed to think of everything really cool!
But then Wikipedia gives the history of black holes. Starting with:
The idea of a body so massive that even light could not escape was first put forward by John Michell in a letter written to Henry Cavendish of the Royal Society in 1783:If the semi-diameter of a sphere of the same density as the Sun were to exceed that of the Sun in the proportion of 500 to 1, a body falling from an infinite height towards it would have acquired at its surface greater velocity than that of light, and consequently supposing light to be attracted by the same force in proportion to its vis inertiae, with other bodies, all light emitted from such a body would be made to return towards it by its own proper gravity.
- John Michell, 1783
Future ShockIn future "Consequences Of A Spring-And-Loop Theory" there will be other revelations about Einstein's greatest formula. For now let's use John Michell's quote as smelling salts; a tonic that snaps us awake and opens up our thinking to new conceptions of physics.
One shocker is that Einstein's equations of General Relativity break down at a Black Hole's Schwarzschild radius, with "some of the terms in the Einstein equations [becoming] infinite" as Wikipedia puts it.
Modern physics is like this. A theory is developed, and physicists talk about and build off of it relentlessly, warts and all.
The marriages of Elizabeth Taylor come to mind. We are told of each new husband, then try to reconcile each with the actress herself. Ultimately the new husband becomes an ex-husband as a new mate is found. But the ex-husbands never go away, and sometimes come back again to serve as Elizabeth's one and only true love.
So, despite the failings of General Relativity, Einstein continues to receive top billing from most physicists.
The Also-RansIn a less Einstein-biased world, we would know of those who followed up Einstein's release of General Relativity over the past hundred years.
Karl Schwarzschild, Johannes Droste, Arthur Eddington, Georges Lemaître, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Lev Landau, Robert Oppenheimer, David Finkelstein and several dozen others are cited on Wikipedia's Black Hole page.
But what of it?
Has there been any real progress since Michell?
A black hole is black...all light emitted from such a body would "be made to return towards it by its own proper gravity"...
So a black hole is black. But why?
The standard answer is that light must traverse space-time, space-time can be bent by gravity, and when you have enough gravity then light itself can't "escape" because space-time curves the light back on itself.
This is workable until someone asks "Yes, but why?"
In the last paper, Spring-And-Loop Theory talked specifically about how our understanding of the Speed of Light can be enhanced by considering the consequences of Spring-And-Loop Theory. In that paper, Spring-And-Loop Theory even made the prediction that the Speed of Light is slowing down with time.
In this paper we bring the Speed of Light to a complete halt.
Spring-And-Loop Theory's take on lightSpring-And-Loop Theory says that everything in the Universe -- "space", matter, dust, etc. -- is composed of "springs" -- ultra intense bundles of energy. To differentiate this from the conventional concept of "space" (that doesn't really exist, it turns out), Spring-And-Loop Theory coins the term Universal Matrix.
Spring-to-spring bumping causes light. If you have a table full of superballs, and you hit one of them, it will hit its neighbor, and so-on, with the result being a propagation of your initial hit through the system.
In solid objects, this propagation happens at the speed of sound.
In the Universal Matrix of springs, this propagation happens at the speed of light.
Who turned out the springs?Matter -- "stuff" as we know it -- is made of loops of energy. Think of it as a solid or liquid, as opposed to the gas of the spring matrix.
Springs, filling every "space" in the Universe, interact and become entangled with matter. The more matter the more entanglement.
Just as a clock stops turning when the clockspring runs out of energy, at a sufficient density of matter, springs stop being springs.
If children are loops, and their mother is a spring, then when there are too many children the mother stops being a mother. Communication breaks down. It becomes a bad day for The Old Woman Who Lived In A Shoe.
This is what happens in a Black Hole.
Another magic trick revealedThe entertainment business depends on the innate human desire to be entertained. This is most profitably exploited when you promise "something for nothing, and a bit of mystery" (a concept I discuss here).
The problem with learning is that it removes the mystery. No wonder the education system has been under attack for decades. Where is the profit in knowledge?
With black holes, removing the mystery leaves simply a dense enough collection of matter loops that spring-spring propagation breaks down.
If the Universal Matrix is an interstate highway, a black hole is a bottomless bog. No matter how fast you drive into the bog, you can't drive out.
Well, not quite. See the end of this paper for a third analogy.
Sorry, Albert"Consequences Of A Spring-And-Loop Theory: Black Holes" doesn't bother to mention that space is bent to an extreme in a black hole -- this property was already covered in the original Spring-And-Loop Theory paper.
It is noteworthy, however, that conventional physics (i.e. General Relativity) says that only the curving of space-time causes a black hole to be black. There is no mention of light stopping, and instead some have theorized that it takes an infinite amount of time for stuff entering a black hole to actually get to the heart of the black hole.
So the largest "electromagnet" in the intergalactic scrapyard takes an infinite amount of time to attract metal to itself? This is counter-intuitive in the extreme.
New businessSpring-And-Loop Theory observes there are two ways that light doesn't leave a black hole, and that while related, they are informatively different.
(1) Mass (i.e. loops) bend "space" (i.e. springs) in the same way that clamping part of a fish net affects the rest of the net -- tugging everything closer to the clamped area. Some light rays within the event horizon of a black hole will be bent back toward the black hole by this effect.
(2) In a black hole specifically there is the limiting case where there are so many loops -- children to be cared for -- that the spring moms are unable to fulfill their parental role (of light propagation). The pretty substantial consequence of this is that, when springs stop springing, information is lost.
Parting of the waysModern physics is far too sure of itself.
A field that prides itself on its non-faith-based approach has used such blind faith in assuming that the speed of light is constant that they have even defined it as a constant. Covered more completely in a previous paper, this is one of the fundamental ways that Spring-And-Loop Theory disagrees with current theory.
Similarly, current theories of entropy maintain that a black hole is an information Library of Congress, archiving all information that enters the event horizon and losing none of it. To prop up their theory, and yet try to resolve the "black hole paradox", they have come up with the notion that all information entering a black hole is maintained on the two dimensional surface of the black hole's event horizon.
When you don't repair your theories as you go along, you end up with such nonsense. It is easy to see how this leads to talk of worm holes, warp drives and 10500 possible universes.
Propagators, on the other hand, must have required an act of Congress.
We built this city on...Common practice in engineering is to worry about edge effects. Your bridge is probably oblivious to an air pocket somewhere in the center of pillar number thirteen, but the edges of all pillars should be carefully designed, and protected.
One of the edge cases in our Universe is a black hole. It is where things go to die in the ultimate sense of that word. To be recycled at best, or melted into something new. [See the conclusion below for more.]
The point is that weak theories break down at the edges. Strong theories simply point out the edge case and move on. Spring-And-Loop Theory sees no reason why things can't "break down and be lost forever" in a black hole.
Less filling, tastes great
Spring-And-Loop Theory is simpler in conception than other physics theories.
It can be difficult to appreciate this.
It is a natural consequence of Spring-And-Loop Theory that black holes do not allow photons of light to escape. There is no need for calculations. Mind you, if such calculations are performed, useful things can be gained from them.
Testability vs ModelabilityScientists insist on testability. Some even say that without it there would be no science. Spring-And-Loop Theory can think of no reason to insist on testability, but it has testable components.
When it comes to black holes, however, it is something of an understatement that they challenge testability. Black holes are not visible in ordinary light, are ultra dim in infrared light, and usually only reveal their presence by their effect on other things.
Black holes are too far away to visit and yet, should we be able to visit them, we could not return our test results to Earth.
Spring-And-Loop Theory can still gain from what little is known about black holes.
The minimum mass to create a Black Hole (and hence the minimum black hole radius) tells Spring-And-Loop Theory something about the minimum density of loops needed to stop the Universal Matrix of springs from propagating.
The spring density is known -- it proceeded from the work of Max Planck, when he connected energy to frequency by "h bar" -- Planck's constant. The wave equation (origin unknown to this writer) relates frequency and wavelength by the speed of light. Ultimately Planck's constant leads to the lower bound of measurement of time, mass, and distance. The Planck length is the width of one spring.
A Black Hole's minimum loop density, combined with the relatively unchanging spring density (give or take a little "dark energy" expansion), leads to a relative density calculation.
This shifts us toward the chemistry end of the science spectrum.
400 years = A pretty robust theoryChemistry is a simple model -- atoms need only be made up of three things, interactions are determined by the attraction and repulsion of "plus" and "minus" charges, atoms "share" electrons with other atoms. And that is about it.
Yet chemistry is alive and well. One rarely hears of major controversies in the chemistry community. There are no major theoretical rivals. Chemistry doesn't yield infinite probabilities or require more than three space plus one time dimensions.
Chemistry just works.
Be like MikeSpring-And-Loop Theory says we need to do something similar with physics.
We need a set of simple properties of springs, loops and the interaction of the two.
Such a system could be applied everywhere.
Simple yet robust theories benefit from mystery. Black holes, rather than being mysterious, offer up to Spring-And-Loop Theory information about how things work at the most fundamental level. Small (i.e. low complexity) is indeed beautiful.
Parting shotsBy the way, conventional physics likes to refer to black holes as infinitely small, and physicists often refer to black holes as a singularity. Quite simply, this defies logic. The most massive thing in a galaxy is...the smallest?
It is safe to say that black holes are thought of this way because current theories force this to be the case. But then everyone admits that General Relativity breaks down in a black hole. Kind of makes you wonder why it is used at all...
Spring-And-Loop Theory sees no reason for a black hole to be infinitely small. Period.
Where to from here?Spring-And-Loop Theory simplifies black holes to such an extent that it is hard to know what else about them should be studied.
One subject worthy of future consideration is whether a Black Hole is ultimately the most stable object in the Universe, or the most explosive. [Filmmakers, put your blinding explosion here.]
Our Sun generates heat by fusing elements together. This only occurs because of the extreme temperature and pressure in the Sun -- though composed mainly of hydrogen (the least dense element), the average density of the Sun is ten times that of lead (one of the most dense metals).
A sufficiently dense Black Hole could conceivably ignite an even bigger furnace. Something on the scale of a Big Bang perhaps.
So far our measurements of existing black hole sizes tell us "it must be bigger than this because this hasn't blown up". But this is evolutionary, not revolutionary, work.
New ideas will need to be conceived, and tested, to determine the ultimate fate of black holes. Such ideas will have to have the firmest of foundations. Spring-And-Loop Theory thinks it knows a good source of concrete.
Next time, on COASALT...In the next paper, Spring-And-Loop Theory takes on the Everest of physics mountains: e=mc2, the mother goddess of all scientific formulas.
So what analogy works for a black hole?Black holes are more like our world today.
Everything appears normal until we try to become spiritual.
We can eat, live and breath with little effort.
Growing up from childhood to adult is routine, times seven billion.
As we rack up four point oh's and accolades, enjoy Bar-B-Ques and ballroom dancing, we get a sense of the world being "our oyster". That life "doesn't get any better than this."
Yet when we think we are practicing free will, we usually are not.
This harsh reality is made most visible when we try to break a bad habit. It can be done, but the effort involved approaches that required to leave a black hole in our rear view.
Our higher self is, literally, our spring-energy. Our lower nature is fueled by possessiveness and possessions -- things... matter... loops.
Too many possessions, too many loops, and our light stops propagating.
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